Problems and Countermeasures of China's high-tech

2022-08-26
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Problems and Countermeasures for the development of China's high-tech industry after China's entry into WTO (1)

in March 1986, the Chinese government formulated a high-tech research and development plan, namely the "863" plan. Since the implementation of the plan, China's major achievements in the field of high-tech research include:

1. Biotechnology

through the research and development of high-yield, high-quality and stress resistant new varieties of animals and plants, new drugs, vaccines and gene therapy, and protein engineering, taking increasing grain production as the strategic focus and developing the biotechnology drug industry as the breakthrough, it has laid a good foundation for the formation of the biotechnology industry, It also leads the world in the cultivation of genetically engineered crops

2. Information technology

the intelligent computer expert group has not only made significant progress in the basic theory and technical research of artificial intelligence, but also broken through the technical difficulties of language, image, character recognition and machine translation; Major breakthroughs have also been made in optical fiber communication technology. In addition, communication equipment and technologies such as program-controlled digital switching equipment, optical fiber and optical cable, all plastic cable and connecting accessories, digital microwave and one point multiple access microwave system, mobile, G3 fax machine, optical fiber connecting machine are also catching up with the world's advanced level

3. Automation technology

cims is regarded by countries all over the world as a key technology to enhance their comprehensive competitiveness. The success of the 6000 meter deep-sea robot work test has made China step into the world's advanced ranks in this field

4. Space technology and satellite applications

China has the ability to develop and launch various application satellites, such as meteorological satellite, resource satellite and communication satellite, which play the role of PA molecular plasticizer, and has become the third country in the world to master satellite recycling technology. On October 15, 2003, China successfully launched the Shenzhou V manned spacecraft, marking that China's space technology has entered the world's advanced ranks

5, other fields

in recent years, China has made a series of achievements in the field of low temperature superconduction3 The experimental error meets the national standard and becomes one of the few centers in the world. Radiation processing has been widely promoted and frequently used in vegetable preservation, chemical industry, electrical appliances, packaging, food, biology, medicine and other fields. The tensile breaking test of equipment may lead to the loosening of local fasteners. It is widely used in nuclear power and supercritical power plants, nickel hydrogen batteries and other new energy fields, active fuels, leather softeners, printing and dyeing additives, high-efficiency catalysts and other fine chemical fields, high-resolution neutron capture gamma spectroscopy technology, nuclear logging system Some progress has been made in the fields of automation and mechatronics, such as numerical control machine tools, shipbuilding, high-speed trains, and new materials, such as Za ~ 27 zinc based alloys, carbon fibers, electronic pulp powder, and significant achievements have also been made in the improvement of crop varieties

first, the problem

1. The structure of high-tech industry is not reasonable, and the policy orientation is unclear

China has made many achievements in high technology and its industry, but in many fields, especially in the development of high-tech industry, there is still a big gap between developed countries and even emerging industrialized countries and regions, such as microelectronics technology, which has entered the level of 0.3 microns abroad, China is still above the level of 3 microns; With regard to space technology, Japan has become the third country in the world to launch space probes to the moon; Computer technology, the United States and Japan have entered the stage of optical computer and neural computer research and development. Although China's total import and export trade is increasing year by year, and the proportion of industrial manufactured products in the export product structure is increasing year by year, the proportion of high-tech products in the export volume is low, and the high-tech products exported are still mainly products processed with imported materials and processed and assembled with supplied materials. The market of high-tech products has become the target of all countries in the world. China's national industry, especially the naive national high-tech industry, is facing increasingly severe challenges

2. The scale of enterprises in high-tech industry is small, and the development of high-tech products is still at a low level. In 2002, China's exports of high-tech products accounted for only 4.7% of total merchandise exports. Accelerating the development of high-tech industries, especially facing the international market, and enhancing the international competitiveness of high-tech products, is an urgent task

3. There is a shortage of high-tech product development funds, lack of support from venture capital funds, and the research and development intensity of high-tech enterprises is low

China's high-tech research funding is limited, there is not enough high-tech product development funds, and the financing channels are narrow. The financing channels with banks as the main body of loans restrict the development of high-tech; At the same time, there is also a serious shortage of social venture capital, which makes it difficult for high-tech research results to be transformed into high-tech products

4. The authorized invention patents of high-tech enterprises are few, and the conversion rate of scientific research achievements is low.

in terms of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements into real productivity and social wealth, China is far behind western industrialized countries and some newly industrialized countries and regions. At present, the contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic growth in China is%, which is much lower than the level of% in developed countries. According to the survey results released by the state in 2002, the commodity conversion rate of general achievements is 45.8%, and the conversion rate of high-tech achievements is only 25%. The policies to encourage the engagement in high-tech are lack of matching

5. The scientific and technological management system needs to be further reformed, the talent market system and talent flow mechanism need to be further improved, and the institutional guarantee of opening up needs to be improved and strengthened

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