Problems and Countermeasures Faced by China's prin

2022-08-08
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The problems and Countermeasures Faced by China's printing machine manufacturing industry

the drupa 2004 exhibition left two deepest impressions to people: first, the development speed of the world's printing technology is so fast; second, there are many Chinese manufacturers gathered in drupa, and after the meeting, most manufacturers hope to come back to Dusseldorf next time. Although we have seen the achievements made in the development of domestic printing machinery manufacturing industry from this exhibition, we have to admit that the gap between our manufacturing technology and advanced countries is not getting smaller, but growing. If our manufacturers can't sit down and seriously study the existing problems and propose solutions, but simply make a summary, it will be difficult to narrow the gap with foreign products by the next drupa exhibition

first, the existing problems of domestic offset printing equipment. Compared with imported offset printing equipment, domestic offset printing equipment has many problems, which can be divided into the following aspects: first, overprint. Compared with imported equipment, the overprint accuracy is not very stable, especially for the poor printability of paper. Some papers overprint better, and some papers have serious angle swing. The second is reliability. Compared with foreign equipment, the reliability is still lower, especially when the more nervous, the more afraid of machine problems, causing greater psychological pressure to users. Third, stability. The state of the machine is sometimes good and sometimes bad. Sometimes the printing work is better than that of foreign machines, and sometimes the state cannot be brought into play. Fourth, the interchangeability of parts is poor. Some parts are not interchangeable, and individual parts cannot be installed directly without repair. Fifth, the maintenance operation is inconvenient. From the perspective of operation and maintenance, many places are indeed unreasonable in design. Some parts in the design often only pay attention to the feasibility in principle, but do not pay attention to the operability in practice. Sixth, material problems. The materials of some parts are really poor. For example, some electrical components can't work normally before they have been used for ten and a half days. The development of some new mechanical materials will significantly speed up the speed, and the parts will break after a few times. Seventh, there are many safety problems. Objectively speaking, the safety problems of many parts are not considered carefully, and some safety accidents often occur. Eighth, the degree of automation is relatively low and the labor intensity is relatively high. Many parts of domestic equipment are not well designed from the perspective of operation. For example, domestic machines have not been equipped with diagonal plate pulling mechanism so far. Ninth, the appearance cannot keep up with the development of the times. It can be seen from the drupa exhibition that the appearance of our machine can hardly be compared with that of foreign machines. There are many problems mentioned above. In fact, domestic equipment has made remarkable progress in recent years. But the progress of foreign products is faster. Therefore, we must carefully study and analyze these existing problems in order to fundamentally promote the development of national industries

second, the corresponding countermeasures we should take. Different people have different opinions on how to treat the problems existing in the existing printing equipment. The following briefly expounds some of the author's views for your reference only

1. the problem of cognition is the biggest problem we need to solve at present. It can be said that if this problem is not solved, the progress of China's printing machine manufacturing industry is simply impossible. Some people regard the manufacturing of printing presses as too mysterious, thinking that only foreigners can do well, and everything must rely on foreigners. These people are indeed too pessimistic. Some people think it's too simple. It's a little too optimistic to make a printing machine according to the output of air conditioners. Judging from the various mechanical equipment we have seen so far, there are few more complex equipment than printing presses, which may be the key reason why only a few countries in the world can do a good job of printing presses. Objectively speaking, the printing machine belongs to high-precision machinery, because a multi-color printing machine has thousands of components, or even more than tens of thousands of components. To ensure that so many components can print high-precision prints such as banknotes, it can be said that its high precision is obvious. From the perspective of Chinese users, many customers hope that the printing machine they buy can not only print general products, but also high-end printing products, and the less investment, the better. Because the active source of the market is not something we can determine in advance. With the further development of the market economy, the competition is becoming more and more brutal, which also forces customers to buy multi-functional equipment. The key to why German and Japanese equipment sell well in China is that their machines have strong adaptability to high-precision and cutting-edge printing. Many small and medium-sized customers can't afford imported equipment, but they also hope that the higher the quality of domestic equipment, the better. Some of our designers always complain about the low level of users, but they don't look back and think about whether their design level is lower than others. From the author's point of view, most of our designers need to be improved. Why do operators always want to drive imported machines? The general idea of this matter is to directly toughen and modify. In fact, everyone should admit it. The production management of printing equipment is a huge systematic project. It is difficult to manage the whole production process of printing equipment without advanced management consciousness. Most of our manufacturers have problems in this regard, but we have never paid serious attention to this problem. I always thought that the poor production of machines was the problem of technicians and production workers, but the leaders didn't. However, without Zhang Ruimin's quality awareness, how can we create today's Haier Group? In contrast, many leaders of our printing machine manufacturers really need to seriously reflect on how to improve their management level and ensure a good production environment for printing machines from the perspective of management. Imagine that some manufacturers' technicians have rarely participated in large-scale printing technology exhibitions. How can they produce satisfactory products

2. Design concept sometimes when you look at foreign machines, you will always find that many of our designs are far from foreign ones, but why do our design level always lag behind foreign design experts? Through so many years of practice, we can see that our design level is indeed far from that of foreign countries. Why can Komori use the eccentric up swing paper transfer mechanism to achieve a high speed of 16000 R/h, while our own eccentric up swing paper transfer mechanism can not work normally at more than 10000 R/h? In fact, this organization can be compared with the rotary paper conveyor. The biggest experience of China's development model in the past is the cheap labor force and the low-end structure connecting with the global industrial chain. The rotary paper conveyor in Heidelberg can be opened to 12000 R/h. Theoretically, the performance of the rotary paper transfer mechanism is relatively worse than that of the eccentric rotary swing paper transfer mechanism. The reason is that the eccentric rotary swing paper transfer mechanism can return to the regular board in advance, which can increase the stable working time of the paper transfer mechanism. This is also the reason why Komori machine still adopts the eccentric rotary swing paper transfer mechanism at high speed. A domestic manufacturer has made some improvements to the eccentric mechanism and replaced the original mechanism with conjugation, but sometimes it feels that it is not as stable as the original mechanism. In fact, some relevant factors are not fully considered. This series of problems shows that our design level still needs to be improved. The reason why our design concept lags behind that of foreign countries is that we have not studied foreign equipment in depth. To be more precise, our understanding of the basic principles of printing machinery needs to be further improved. This is also why some manufacturers require technicians not to make any changes when surveying and mapping equipment, because this situation often occurs in the process of practice: the changes made according to their own subjective will often fail to achieve the desired results, and sometimes may lead to the failure of the whole surveying and mapping work

3. The problem of technology input is a key to restrict technological progress. Many manufacturers' investment in technology is less than 1% of the total output value, while foreign manufacturers' investment in technology can reach more than 10%. Many of our technicians are really pathetic. They want to do some experiments but have no conditions at all. As we all know, any scientific research cannot fail, but most manufacturers cannot accept the reality of failure, which is also closely related to the economic foundation of our manufacturers. However, from the current strength of some manufacturers, they have the ability to invest more in technology. If these manufacturers have conditions, they should increase the proportion of technology investment to more than 5%. If this can be achieved, the research of printing machine technology in China will make significant progress. At present, a key problem restricting printing machine manufacturers is the rapid flow of talents, especially the phenomenon of technical backbone job hopping in individual manufacturers. Some manufacturers have recognized these problems and adopted high wages or technology to attract talents. In the past two years, the income of technicians has increased significantly compared with the past. From the perspective of printing technology, the income of technicians in individual important positions still has room for further improvement. The author has also visited some colleges and factories, where some backbone technicians can basically not worry about their lives, go all out to devote themselves to technical work, and constantly develop new products for the factory. The management of technical personnel should be particularly careful, and the maximum cooling temperature of liquid nitrogen can reach ⑴ 96 ℃, which should be different from ordinary personnel. It is necessary to ensure high input and high output at the same time. One monk would rather carry water than two monks. On the surface, there are many technicians in some units, but there are not many really skilled technicians. Some units have too few staff, so their own technicians can only maintain production and have no energy for product development at all

4. as for the problem of processing materials, the problem of materials is a problem that many people have reported. If we say that our materials are stronger than foreign ones, everyone will not believe it, but our inferior materials are one of the fundamental reasons for the poor quality of our products. The author believes that this issue should be seriously discussed. The permanent bicycles we produced in the 1960s and 1970s are still strong and durable, but now some bicycles are really a little like cotton. They will be seriously deformed after a little impact, because the manufacturers use some low-quality materials in order to reduce costs. In fact, if a little better materials are used, the quality of the equipment will be much better than that of the current machines. Some material problems are also caused by the lack of coordination between the supply and production departments. The supply department cannot accurately grasp the quality requirements of products, so only the cost is considered when selecting parts, and other problems are ignored. Cost must be considered, but the key is how to produce the best equipment at the lowest cost. In fact, this problem has not been comprehensively and seriously studied in any manufacturer. For example, how to choose the mechanical structure and electrical control system to make the equipment produced the simplest and most practical. How to allocate the machining accuracy of each part to minimize the machining cost. In the actual process, it is also found that many parts can reduce the accuracy, but they give relatively high tolerance requirements. On the contrary, some components obviously need to have high accuracy requirements, but the accuracy given is particularly low or can not meet the specified requirements. Some parts

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